"The groundwork of all happiness is health." - Leigh Hunt

Do we really want to exercise five times greater than we're told?

For many years, public health guidelines worldwide have advisable adults get at the least half-hour of moderate physical activity most days of the week. This equates to about 150 minutes of moderate activity per week or 75 minutes of vigorous intensity activity.

So it surprised, and maybe upset, many individuals to read last week's headlines claiming that “We need to exercise five times more than we are told.This comes from a study published in Dawa. British Medical Journal (BMJ), which concluded:

People who achieve a level of total physical activity several times higher than the present advisable minimum level have a significantly reduced risk of 5 diseases.

In fact, the more you exercise, the higher. However, the necessary issue that was missed is that the BMJ study based its results on self-reported physical activity time aggregated across multiple life domains. These include such incidental physical activities as carrying boxes and cleansing windows at work, in addition to going for walks and playing tennis. But most studies that explore the connection between disease risk and exercise are based on specifically designated physical activity.

Using a self-reported multiple-domain measure of physical activity, the study produced estimates — about 13 to 16 hours of brisk walking or six to eight hours of running per week — that studies focused on specific measures. are significantly higher than Exercise activities, resembling jogging or lifting weights.


How was the study conducted?

The BMJ study was a scientific review, where researchers analyze numerous existing studies and papers on a specific topic. In this case, the authors reviewed studies between 1980 and 2016 that examined the connection between physical activity and the danger of 5 common diseases: breast cancer, colon cancer, diabetes, heart disease and stroke.

Of the 174 papers analyzed, the authors extracted data on total minutes of physical activity per week. Activity in these studies was measured in multiple domains including during work time, resembling lifting light loads; transportation, resembling walking to work or shops; and leisure, resembling walking the dog or playing tennis.

Incidental physical activity may include walking to meetings during work hours.
From shutterstock.com

Many of those studies reported only leisure-time activity. For them, the authors used statistical methods to estimate what can be akin to total physical activity in several domains.

These estimates were based on data from a nationally representative survey that used World Health Organization Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAC), which also measures physical activity in multiple domains.

What were the outcomes?

The study confirmed that physical activity, even when equal to 150 minutes per week of moderate to moderate intensity, reduced a number of the leading causes of disease and premature death in Australia (diabetes, heart disease and stroke). is related to a reduced risk of

The study also found that engaging in high levels of physical activity could have additional health advantages, including a reduced risk of breast and colon cancer.

For diabetes, heart disease, and stroke, the authors showed a modest risk reduction (14-16%) for adults who did 30 to 99 minutes of activity per day, in comparison with those that didn't. Less than half-hour.

However, a risk reduction of around 15% was observed in colon cancer only amongst adults who amassed 100-199 minutes of activity per day. Even more activity – greater than 200 minutes per day – was related to a 15% reduced risk of breast cancer.

How should we read the outcomes?

This study specifically examined associations of total physical activity across multiple domains with chronic disease risk. Using this multiple domain approach resulted in overestimation of activity levels. For example, the very best level of physical activity within the paper equates to greater than 19 hours of moderate activity per day. This is clearly unrealistic.

Even as little as 150 minutes per week of moderate-intensity physical activity is related to a reduced risk of major causes of disease.
From shutterstock.com

Multiple-domain physical activity questionnaires routinely measure physical activity, Often show higher numbers. Compared to those using questionnaires focusing only on leisure time. This is for several reasons.

Leisure-time activity is mostly more purposeful and more vigorous than incidental activity in other domains. Because of this, it is simpler for study participants to recall and report their leisure time activity.

Leisure can also be the domain where adults have essentially the most discretion over how they spend their time and is due to this fact most amenable to alter.

So as a reminder, the BMJ study used the World Health Organization questionnaire, which measures physical activity in multiple domains, as the premise for his or her estimates of physical activity.

This questionnaire could also be an affordable tool for classifying participants from least lively to most lively – in multiple domains of their lives – or for monitoring physical activity in a population. But the minutes-per-week estimates obtained from this questionnaire can't be taken as absolute Correct representation Volume of physical activity related to disease risk.

From this study we are able to indeed conclude that moderate amounts of physical activity provide health advantages and that additional advantages might be achieved with additional physical activity.

What else should we consider?

When health agencies first advisable physical activity levels for the general public, The focus was on vigorous exercise. and cardiovascular fitness. In the Nineties the suggestion of 150 minutes of moderate activity per week emerged in response to evidence showing the advantages of low-intensity physical activity.

Australian Government Revised its national physical activity guidelines. in 2014, that are sufficient to supply many health advantages. Australians are actually encouraged to aim for 300 minutes of moderate (or 150 minutes of vigorous) activity per week, include strength training at the least twice every week, and check out to get Reduce the period of time spent sitting.

Leisure activity is purposeful and more vigorous.
From shutterstock.com

Only 56% of Australian adults and 25% of older Australians Met the Australian Government's physical activity guidelines in 2014-15..

Reports suggest that folks need five times as much exercise, stopping the bulk from engaging in achievable behaviors which can be clearly good for his or her health. Brigid Lynch and Paul Gardner

Peer review

I generally agree with Research Check that there are methodological problems with the physical activity measurement within the BMJ study.

The most significant problem with this study is using self-report measures that measure all domains of physical activity and are known to significantly overestimate the quantity of physical activity performed.

This overestimation underestimates the dose-response effects of physical activity, suggesting that we'd like to do more to realize similar health outcomes. The study results would have been stronger if the authors had used objective measures of total physical activity (assessed by accelerometers, that are devices that measure physical acceleration) of their meta-analysis.

Many others Distinguished Physical Activity Researchers His response, published within the BMJ, also points to this and other technical, methodological issues. – Cornell Vendelanot