"The groundwork of all happiness is health." - Leigh Hunt

How the Paris Olympics could turn out to be a superspreader event for dengue.

In September 2023, several people got here along Dengue The presence of this fever mosquito-borne disease in Paris, France, was notable for 2 reasons. It was the furthest northward ever recorded, and none had traveled until recently. This showed that local transmission of dengue in northern Europe is now possible.

These facts are vital due to the Olympics in 2024. France is waiting in anticipation for more. 10 million Athletes, fans, officials and tourists descend on town for the event. The French government knows there's a risk of dengue. in Paris, Hundreds of sites Regular checks are being carried out for the presence of dengue-carrying mosquitoes. Will or not it's enough?

The concept of Super spreader Infection will not be recent to epidemiology. In essence, which means a small portion of the population, perhaps only one person, is accountable for nearly all of cases. Was a famous historic super spreader. “Typhoid Mary”. Mary Malin was an asymptomatic carrier of typhoid that infected greater than 100 people.

A study published within the journal The nature It found that about 15% of the people in China's Hunan Province were accountable for 85% of the COVID cases. Regarding dengue An analysis from Peru Superspreading shows that 8% of human-occupied areas are accountable for greater than half of the cases. (It needs to be noted that dengue can't be contracted directly from one other person, only through the bite of a dengue-carrying mosquito.)

This will not be the primary time the Olympics have been identified as a risk factor for viral pandemics. 2016 Olympics in Brazil were almost postponed. Because of fears about Zika – one other mosquito-borne virus.

In the top, any concerns were put to bed, because there have been No cases were reported.

Fears of the spread of COVID through the Tokyo Olympics have led to strict measures to limit transmission. At the event, few infections occurred throughout the Olympic bubble, but there was one. Increase in cases amongst the final population.

So what's different about Paris?

2016 is rather more widespread than in 2016, and the variety of dengue cases worldwide has increased dramatically over the identical period. In 2016, 5.2 million cases were reported worldwide. Halfway through 2024, already done. 7.6 million cases.

Visitors from greater than 200 countries are expected to go to France for the Olympics. Many of those countries are already experiencing dengue this yr.

To turn out to be the Paris Olympics Super Spreader EventSeveral aspects must overlap. There have to be enough mosquitoes, enough susceptible pre-infected people, enough time and enough mosquito bites.

The tiger mosquito is well-suited to the Parisian environment.
Itsik Marom/Alamy Stock Photo

Perfect fit

The tiger mosquito is perfectly adapted to the urban environment of Paris. She needs the least amount of water in a small container to put her eggs. It preferentially feeds on humans at dawn and dusk. The eggs themselves can withstand dry conditions for months. Once again wet, the eggs will hatch.

What makes this case potentially dangerous for Paris is that a few of these mosquitoes may have already got dengue inside them. Passed by his mother. This can significantly reduce the variety of bites needed to start out an outbreak.

Within the time-frame of the Olympics, an infected athlete or spectator could be bitten once by a mosquito and an outbreak can spread inside every week or more. Each female mosquito can lay as much as 200 eggs at a time.

Most cases of dengue are asymptomatic. People infected before or through the Olympics may not know they're carrying the virus. They may carry the virus back home and unknowingly cause an epidemic there.

Whether individuals are sick or not, they're carrying the virus and might pass the infection on in the event that they are bitten by a mosquito.

At this yr's Rio Carnival, an outbreak of dengue occurred just days before the event. A public health emergency is being called.however the event was not cancelled.

There shall be no public health emergency in Paris since the event itself is a risk factor. Anyone living, working, visiting, competing, volunteering and even just passing through Paris through the Olympic period goes to be an enormous part. Natural experience – Whether they understand it or not.